PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION xvii
energetic courage with which he built it into a system - offered to his fellow humans as a better way to orient themselves.
12. The Structural Differential as a model of the abstracting process and a summary of general semantics. Korzybski realized the importance of visualization for human understanding. He knew, then, that to make some of the higher order, overarching relationships of his system accessible, visible, he must make a diagram, a model, a map, that people could see and touch. Thus the Structural Differential, a device for differentiating the structures of abstracting. As far as I know, this is the first structurally appropriate model of the abstracting process.
13. Languages, formulational systems, etc., as maps and only maps of what they purport to represent. This awareness led to the three premises (popularly expressed) of general semantics:
the map is not the territory no map represents all of 'its' presumed territory maps are self-reflexive, i.e., we can map our maps indefinitely. Also, every map is at least, whatever else it may claim to map, a map of the map-maker: her/his assumptions, skills, world-view, etc. By 'maps' we should understand everything and anything that humans formulate - including this book and my present contributions, but also including (to take a few in alphabetical order), biology, Buddhism, Catholicism chemistry, Evangelism, Freudianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, I.utheranism, physics, Taoism, etc., etc.,...!
14. Allness/non-allness as clear, to be dealt with, formulations. If no map can represent all of 'its' presumed territory, we need to eschew habitual use of the term 'all' and its ancient philosophical correlates, absolutes of various kinds.
15. Non-identity and its derivatives, correlates, etc. At every turn in Korzybski's formulating we encounter his forthright challenge to the heart of aristotelianism - and its non-Western, equally essentialist counterparts. "Whatever you say a thing is, it is not." This rejection of the 'law of identity' ('everything is identical with itself) may be Korzybski's most controversial formulation. After all, Korzybski's treatment directly challenges the 'Laws of Thought', revered for over two thousand years in the West and, differently expressed, in non-Western cultures. Korzybski's challenge is fans planetary. Wc 'Westerners' can't (as some have tried) escape to the 'East'. Identifications, confusions of orders of abstracting, are common to all human nervous systems we know of.
16. Extension ofCassius Keyser's "Logical Fate": from premises, conclusions follow, inexorably. Korzybski recognized that conclusions constitute behaviors, consequences, doings, and that these are not merely logical derivatives but psycho-logical inevitabilities. If we want to change