xviii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION
behaviors, we must first change the premises which gave birth to the behaviors. Korzybski's strong version of Keyser's restrictedly 'logical' formulation was first adumbrated in Korzybski's paper, "Fate and Freedom" of 1923 and received its full expression in the "Foreword" (with M. Kendig) to A Theory of Meaning Analyzed in 1942, both available in the Collected Writings. Both expressions well antedate Thomas Kuhn's "paradigm shifts" and, more pointedly than Kuhn, formulate the behavioral implications of logical and philosophical systems.
17. The circularity of knowledge (spiral-character-in-'time'). Korzybski noted that our most 'abstract' formulations are actually about nonverbal processes/events, and that how we formulate about these at a given date, how we talk to ourselves, through neural feedback mechanisms, relatively determines how we will subsequently abstract-formulate: healthfully if our abstracting is open, non-finalistic (non-absolute); pathologically if not.
18. Electro-colloidal (macro-molecular-biological) and related processes. Korzybski emphasized awareness of these as fundamental for understanding neuro-linguistic systems/organisms.
19. Non-elementalism applied to human organisms-as-a-whole-in-an-environment. Some of Korzybski's predecessors in the study of language and human error may have pointed to what he labeled 'elementalism' (verbally splitting what cannot be split empirically) as a linguistically-embedded human habit, but none I know of had so thoroughly built against it and recommended replacing it with habitual non-elementalism. Korzybski's practical insistence that adopting non-elementalistic procedures and terms would benefit the humans (including scientists) who adopt them is original and, for him, urgent.
20. Extensions of logics (plural) as subsets of non-aristotelian evaluating, including the limited usefulness (but usefulness) of aristotelian logic.7
21. Epistemology as centered in neuro-linguistic, neuro-semantic issues. Korzybski built squarely on the neuroscience of his day and affirmed the fundamental importance of epistemology (the study of how we know what we say we know) as the sine qua non for any sound system upon which to organize our interactions with our children, students, friends, lovers, bosses, trees, animals, government - the 'universe'. Becoming conscious of abstracting constitutes applied epistemology: general semantics.
22. The recognition of and formulation of extensional and intensional orientations as orientations. Here we see Korzybski at his most diagnostic and prognostic. Realizing that a person's epistemological-evaluational style, a person's habitual way with evaluating determines how life will go, he recommends adoption of an extensional orientation, with its emphasis on 'facts'. If a person is over-committed to verbal constructs, definitions, formulae, 'conventional wisdom', etc., that person may be so trapped in those