Hi INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION
follows his whole system, then more or less satisfactory on macroscopic levels. A modern revision of the aristotelian system or the building of a non-aristotelian system involves, or is based on, similar aims; namely, the formulation of a general method not only for scientific work, but also life, as we know it today (1941).
Modern scientific developments show that what we label 'objects' or 'objective' are mere nervous constructs inside of our skulls which our nervous systems have abstracted electro-colloidally from the actual world of electronic processes on the sub-microscopic level. And so we have to face a complete methodological departure from two-valued, 'objective' orientations to general, infinite-valued, process orientations, as necessitated by scientific discoveries for at least the past sixty years.
The aim of the work of Aristotle and the work of the non-aristotelians is similar, except for the date of our human development and the advance of science. The problem is whether we shall deal with science and scientific methods of 350 B.C. or of 1941 a.c. In general semantics, in building up a non-aristotelian system, the aims of Aristotle are preserved yet scientific methods are brought up to date.
Section D. A non-aristotelian revision.
In an attempt to convey the magnitude of the task we are now confronting, I can do no better than to summarize roughly in the following tabulation some of the more outstanding points of difference between the aristotelian system as it shapes our lives today, and is lived by; and a scientific, non-aristotelian system, as it will, perhaps, guide our lives sometime in the future.
Old Aristotelian Orientations New Gw^J^l?L?"AMST°"
(circa 350 b.c) telia^Omentations
1. Subject-predicate methods Relational methods
2. Symmetrical relations, inadequate Asymmetrical relations, indispensable
for proper evaluation for proper evaluation
3. Static, 'objective", 'permanent', 'sub- Dynamic, ever-changing, etc., electronic
stance', 'solid matter', etc., orien- process orientations tations
4. 'Properties' of 'substance', 'attri- Relative invariance of function, dynamic
butes', 'qualities' of 'matter,' etc. structure, etc.
5. Two-valued, 'either-or*. inflexible, Infinite-valued flexibility, degree orien-
dogmatic orientations tations
6. Static, finalistic 'alines/; finite num- Dynamic non-allness; infinite number of
ber of characteristics attitudes characteristics attitudes