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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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follow when Tiate' absorbs the whole of the affective energy of the given individual. In such extreme cases 'hate' exhausts the limited affective energy. No energy is left for positive feelings and the picture is often that of a dementia praecox, etc. Thus an individual 'hates' a generalisation 'mother', 'father', etc., and so by identification 'hates' 'all mothers', 'all fathers', etc., in fact, hates the whole fabric of human society, and becomes a neurotic or even a psychotic. Obviously, it is useless to preach 'love' for those who have hurt and have done the harm. Just the opposite ; as a preliminary step, by indexing we allocate or limit the 'hate' to the individual Smith, instead of a 'hate' for a generalization which spreads over the world. In actual cases we can watch how this allocation or limitation of 'hate' from a generalization to an individual helps the given person. The more they 'hate' the individual Smith instead of a generalization, the more positive affective energy is liberated, and the more 'human' and 'normal' they become. It is a long struggle, but so far empirically invariably successful, provided the student is willing to work persistently at himself.
But even this indexed individualized 'hate' is not desirable, and we eliminate it rather simply by dating. Obviously Smith1920 is not Smith19*0 and most of the time hurt!1820 would not be a 'hurt' in 1940. With such types of orientations the individual becomes adjusted, and serious improvements in family and social relationships follow, because the student has trained himself in a general method for handling his own problems.
Similar mechanisms of generalization through identifications are involved in morbid and other generalized jears which are so disastrous for daily adjustment. Because thalamic factors are involved, these difficulties are helped greatly or eliminated by a similar use of the extensional devices to individualize and then date the allocated fears.
What a heavy price we may sometimes pay for the disregard of extensional devices in connection with the structure of language, can be illustrated no better than by the life history and work of Dr. Sigmund Freud. In his writings Freud ascribed one intensional undifferentiated 'sex' even to infants, which revolted public opinion. If Freud would have used the extensional devices he would not have gotten into such detrimental professional and other difficulties. He would not have used the fiction 'sex' without indexes, dates and quotes, and he would have explained that an infant has a ticklish organ which could be labelled 'sex00' at birth, 'sexi1' at the age of one, 'sexa2' at the age of two, etc. These are obviously different in life, but the differences are hidden by the one abstract definitional term 'sex', and made obvious only by the extensional techniques.