And so far as the actual, fundamental, biological structure of our society is concerned and notwithstanding its stupendous growth in size and all the tinkering to which it has been subjected, we are still in much the same infantile stage. But if the ants are not despondent because they have failed to produce a new social invention or convention in 65 million years, why should we be discouraged because some of our institutions and castes have not been able to evolve a new idea in the past fifty centuries? (553)
WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER
The ancient who desired to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the empire, first ordered well their own state. Wishing to order well their own state, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their own persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their heart. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they extended their knowledge to the utmost; and this extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their heart being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their family being regulated, their states were rightly governed. _ Their states being rightly governed, their whole empire was made tranquil and happy. From the emperor down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person, the root of every thing besides. Confucius
My service at the front during the World War and an intimate knowledge of life-conditions in Europe and the United States of America have convinced me that a scientific revision of all our notions about ourselves is needed. Investigation disclosed that all disciplines dealing with the affairs of man either do not have a definition of man, or, if they do, that it is formulated in metaphysical, el, subject-predicate languages, which-are unscientific and ultimately semantically harmful.
As we have, at present, no general science of man embracing all his functions, language, mathematics, science and 'mental' ills included, I believed that to originate such a science would be useful. This task I began in my Manhood of Humanity, and have continued in the present volume. The selection of a name for such a science is difficult. The only really appropriate name, 'Anthropology', is already pre-empted to cover a most fundamental and sound discipline, without which even modern psychiatry would be impossible. This name, at present, is used in a restricted sense to signify the animalistic natural history of man, disregarding the fact that the natural history of man must include factors non-existent in the animal world, but which are his natural functions,