its structure and ways of functioning. It constitutes a grave danger when misused.
When we say 'our rulers', we mean those who are engaged in the manipulation of symbols. There is no escape from the fact that they do, and that they always will, rule mankind, because we constitute a symbolic class of life, and we cannot cease from being so, except by regressing to the animal level.
The hope for the future consists in the understanding of this fact; namely, that we shall always be ruled by those who rule symbols, which will lead to scientific researches in the field of symbolism and s.r. We would then demand that our rulers should be enlightened and carefully selected. Paradoxical as it may seem, such researches as the present work attempts, will ultimately do more for the stabilization of human affairs than legions of policemen with machine guns, and bombs, and jails, and asylums for the maladjusted.
A complete list of our rulers is difficult to give; yet, a few classes of them are quite obvious. Bankers, priests, lawyers and politicians constitute one class and work together. They do not produce any values, but manipulate values produced by others, and often pass signs for no values at all. Scientists and teachers also comprise a ruling class. They produce the main values mankind has, but, at present, they do not realize this. They are, in the main, themselves ruled by the cunning methods of the first class.
In this analysis the 'philosophers' have been omitted. This is because they require a special treatment. As an historical fact, many 'philosophers' have played an important and, to be frank, sinister role in history. At the bottom of any historical trend, we find a certain 'philosophy', a structural implication cleverly formulated by some 'philosopher'. The reader of this work will later find that most 'philosophers' gamble on multiordinal and el terms, which have no definite single (one-valued) meaning, and so, by cleverness in twisting, can be made to appear to mean anything desired. It is now no mystery that some quite influential 'philosophers' were 'mentally' ill. Some 'mentally' ill persons are tremendously clever in the manipulation of words and can sometimes deceive even trained specialists. Among the clever concoctions which appear in history as 'philosophic' systems, we can find flatly opposing doctrines. Therefore, it has not been difficult at any period for the rulers to select a cleverly constructed doctrine perfectly fitting the ends they desired.
One of the main characteristics of such 'philosophers' is found in the delusion of grandeur, the 'Jehovah complex'. Their problems have