II. GENERAL ON STRUCTURE
and will be - established for the pursuit of this A enquiry; so the future student and teacher must have at least an outline of the main problems. It seemed more advisable to outline main issues relevant to the subject, than to work out some of them in more detail. A great deal of new scientific literature on structure and s.r must be produced by mathematicians, psychiatrists, linguists, psychophysiologists,. In this field, experience has taught me that very little has been done and that much of what has been done cannot be accepted without a non-el revision. It seems to be more convenient that the reader shall not be referred to too many books, and more expedient that the writer should not take too much for granted; so most of the structural and semantic informations which are necessary for an intelligent reading are given, together with additional references for students who wish to go deeper into the subject.
The reader will find that the non-el principle has been emphasized. In the meantime, in the writing I have had to use some el terms. In such cases, I used the old terms in quotation marks. The reason for this is that before the full general theory is developed, it is impossible to do otherwise. Besides, even if organism-as-a-whole terms were used from the beginning, this also would not be entirely adequate; for the organism-as-a-whole cannot and should not be structurally separated from its environment; and so the terms should be enlarged to cover, by implication, the environment.
Later we shall see that all languages have some characteristics similar to mathematical languages. For instance, the A word, 'apple', as it has no individual subscripts or date, is not a name for a definite object or stage of a process which are all different, but a name for a definition, which, in principle, is one-valued, while the objective processes are oo-valued. If this mechanism is not clearly understood, we are bound in dealing with actual oo-valued stages of processes, to identify the oo values into one or a few values. The above considerations necessitate a non-el new theory of meanings in accordance with the structure of the world and our nervous system.
The distinction between mathematical and physical languages is structurally most important, although once identification is entirely eliminated, we discover that all possible characteristics found in this world are due to structure, and so can be expressed in terms of structure, relations, and multi-dimensional order.
Several similar difficulties will appear later on, all having a similar general characteristic; namely, that we seem to reach an impasse, from which there is no way out. Yet escape can be found, not by solution in the old way, but by reformulating the problem so as to make a solution