GENERAL EP1STEMOLOG1CAL 107
beneficial influences operate unconsciously, they, nevertheless, tend to counteract the el and absolutistic semantic effects of identification.
It is interesting to note that the Einstein theory, because structural, has had the effect upon the younger physicists of a semantic release from the old structural elementalism and has prepared the semantic ground for the crop of young geniuses which has sprung up lately in the quantum field. It was found that the el 'absolute' division of the 'observer' and the 'observed' was false to facts, because every observation in this field disturbs the observed. The elimination of this elementalism in the quantum field led to the most revolutionary restricted 'uncertainty principle' of Heisenberg, which, without abolishing determinism, requires the transforming of the two-valued A 'logic' into the oo-valued semantics of probability. Again, this advance in quantum formulations has suggested new experiments.
The -system, as originated by the writer in his Manhood of Humanity and other writings, is also the result of the structurally non-el tendency. In Manhood of Humanity, I introduced a non-el term, 'time-binding', by which is meant all the factors which as-a-whole make man a man, and which differentiate him from animals. In carrying the system further in the present book, I reject the structurally el separation involved in such terms as 'senses' and 'mind'., and introduce, instead, non-el terms, such as 'different orders of abstractions'., where 'mind' and 'senses'., are no longer divided. Curiously enough, even in such a field, the method has suggested experiments, and so again the new language has laboratory importance.
What has been said above about the organism-as-a-whole, and illustrated by particular cases, seems to show a general characteristic of all our abstracting capacities. We usually disregard, or fail to appreciate, the fact that a single structurally important new term might lead to the re-postulation of the whole structure of the language in the given field. In science we search for structure; so any structurally new term is useful, because, when tested, it always gives structural information, whether positive or negative. In our human affairs, it is different. All our human institutions follow the structure of the language used; but we never 'think' of that, and, when the silly institutions do not work, we blame it all on 'human nature', without any scientific justification.
Poincare, in one of his essays, speaks about the harmful effect which the term 'heat' had on physics. Grammatically, the term 'heat' is classified as a substantive, and so physics was labouring for centuries looking for some 'substance' which would correspond to the substantive name 'heat'. We know by now that there is no such thing, but that 'heat' must