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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOUR
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The smaller the colloidal particles, the closer we come to molecular and atomic sizes. Since we know atoms represent electrical structures, we should not be surprised to find that, in colloids, surface energies and electrical charges become of fundamental importance, as by necessity all surfaces are made up of electrical charges. The surface energies operating in finely grained and dispersed systems are large, and in their tendency for a minimum, every two particles or drops tend to become one; because, while the mass is not altered by this change, the surface of one larger particle or drop is less than the surface of two smaller ones - an elementary geometrical fact. Electrical charges have the well-known characteristic that like repels like and attracts the unlike. In colloids, the effect of these factors is of a fundamental, yet opposite, character. The surface energies tend to unite the particles, to coagulate, flocculate or precipitate them. In the meanwhile the electrical charges tend to preserve the state of suspension by repelling the particles from each other. On the predominance or intensity of one or other of these factors, the instability or the stability of a suspension depends.
In general, if 'time' limits are not taken into consideration, colloids are unstable complexes, in which continuous transformation takes place, which is induced by light, heat, electric fields, electronic discharges, and other forms of energy. These transformations result in a great variation of the characteristics of the system. The dispersed phase alters its characteristics and the system begins to coagulate, reaching a stable state when the coagulation is complete. This process of transformation of the characteristics of the system which define the colloid, and which ends in coagulation, is called the 'ageing* of the colloid. With the coagulation complete, the system loses its colloidal behaviour - it is 'dead'. Both of these terms apply to inorganic as well as to organic systems.
Some of the coagulating processes are partial and reversible, and take the form of change in viscosity; some are not. Some are slow; some extremely rapid, particularly when produced by external agencies which alter the colloidal equilibrium.
From what has been said already, it is obvious that colloids, particularly in organisms, are extremely sensitive and complex structures with enormous possibilities as to degree of stability, reversibility., and allow a wide range of variation of behaviour. When we speak of 'chemistry', we are concerned with a science which deals with certain materials which preserve or alter certain of their characteristics. In 'physics', we go beyond the obvious characteristics and try to discover the structure underlying these characteristics. Modern researches show clearly that atoms have a very complex structure and that the macroscopic character-
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