128 111. NON-ELEMENTAL1ST1C STRUCTURES
Section C. Illustrations from 'mental' and nervous diseases.
Simple and striking examples of what the non-el principle means can also be given from psychiatry.
White quotes the report of Prince that a patient was subject to severe attacks of hay fever when exposed to roses. On one occasion, a bunch of roses was unexpectedly produced from behind a screen. The patient started a severe attack with all the usual symptoms, lachryma-tion, congestion of the mucosa., although the roses were made of paper. This interesting case shows clearly how 'mental' factors (the belief that the roses were genuine) produce a series of reactions involving sensory, motor, vasomotor disturbances, and secretory disturbances of a definitely 'physical' character.12
Migraine labels a disturbance in the tension of blood vessels (vasomotor), which is due to a great variety of possible stimuli acting on the vegetative nervous system. In some instances, the stimuli may be purely physical, as severe blows, falls, fast movements, sudden alteration in temperature, of pressure.; or they may be chemical, and due to nicotine, alcohol, morphine, or to some endocrinal disturbances (adrenals, thyroid), toxins,. They may be of a purely somatic reflex character, due to fatigue, tumour formations,. They may also be of a semantic character, due to anger, fear, disappointment, worry, and other semantic states, which may act by disturbing the metabolism.
Migraine appears usually as a periodical abnormal state, in which the patient suffers from an oppressive pain in the head which gradually passes from heaviness and dullness to splitting intensity. Often characteristic visual signs also appear. The patient sees dark spots in the visual field, flying specks, and may become even partially blind. Chilliness, depression, sensory disturbances, particularly in the stomach, with vomiting, are often present. An attack may last a few hours or even several days.13
Cretinism labels a physical and 'mental' disturbance due mainly to the loss or diminution of the function of the thyroid gland. The patient (child) falls behind in his physical development, which often results in dwarfism, except for the skull, which grows larger in proportion to the rest of the body. The bone defects give rise to widely separated eyes, pug nose,. The bony tissue becomes unusually hard, and there is also a marked dental deficiency. The neck is usually thick and short, the abdomen puffy, the navel sunken. The hair line begins low on the forehead, the nose is sunken, the eyelids swollen, the face puffy, the tongue protruding. The liver is usually enlarged, respiration is slow, and