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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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THE 'OKGANLSM-AS-A-WIIOLE*                     129
changes in the blood can be detected. The nervous system is affected: we also find defects in sensory and motor nerve structure. On the 'mental' level, we find different degrees of stupidity, 'mental' weakness (morons), imbecility, and even idiocy. Smell, eyesight, and hearing are often poor, speech disturbed, so that we often find the patients deaf and dumb. The patients have an unsteady gait, with wobbling of the head. Over-activity of the thyroid gland results in the well-known goitre.
Hyperpituitarism results in acromegaly, characterized by the gradual enlargement of the bones of the nose, jaw, hands and feet, gigantism, often connected with profound disturbances. Hypopituitarism, or deficiency of the pituitary hormones, gives rise to a group of diseases characterized by a progressive accumulation of fat, and is connected with other abnormalities and disturbances.
From the field of the psychoneuroses, I shall mention only hysteria. It is very interesting to note that the many and various physical and somatic symptoms are of a purely semantic origin. The symptoms of hysteria are many and very complex, but they group themselves mainly in disturbances of motion and 'sensation'. We find every kind of paralysis and anaesthesia. Paralysis of the limbs is frequent; anaesthesia may be distributed in many ways, involving the superficies or the various 'sense-organs'. It is interesting to note that the distribution of these symptoms does not follow the anatomical areas of nerve distribution, but shows a symbolic (psycho-logical) grouping. The disturbances of motility are usually in the form of paralysis. Tremors, muscular debility, fatigability, involuntary muscular twitching, tics and spasms are often hysterical in origin. Speech is often involved; sometimes patients can only whisper, although their vocal organs are healthy. Stuttering is often hysterical, and analysis shows that the words which give difficulties usually have special semantic significance for the patient. Respiratory disturbances of an asthmatic character and disturbances of the gastro-intestinal tract are also often hysterical.
It should be emphasized that since non-elementalism has a physico-chemical structural base in colloidal behaviour, all life and all organisms give ample material for illustration. We have given here only a very few examples, selected mainly because of their simple and spectacular empirical character, but not generally too well known. Empirical data show clearly that the most diversified factors, acting as partial stimuli, ultimately affect or result in the response of the whole.
The handling of such empirical, structural, fundamental problems involves serious structural, linguistic and semantic difficulties which have to be solved entirely by adjusting the structure of the language used. But