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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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160 IV. STRUCTURAL FACTORS IN A LANGUAGES
part of the nervous system is in nervous connection with every other part, directly or indirectly. This is illustrated by the way in which the digestive functions (which normally are quite autonomous, the nervous control not going beyond the sympathetic system, . . . ) may be disturbed by mental processes whose primary seat may be in the association centers of the cerebral cortex; and also by the way in which strychnin-poisoning seems to lower the neural resistance everywhere, so that a very slight stimulus may serve to throw the whole body into convulsions. . . .
'Our picture of the reflex act in a higher animal will, then, include a view of the whole nervous system in a state of neural tension. The stimulus disturbs the equilibrium at a definite point (the receptor), and the wave of nervous discharge thus set up irradiates through the complex lines determined by the neural connections of the receptor. If the stimulus is weak and the reflex path is simple and well insulated, a simple response may follow immediately. Under other conditions the nervous discharge may be inhibited before it reaches any effector, or it may irradiate widely, producing a very complex reflex pattern. . . .
'The mechanism of the reflex should not be regarded as an open channel through which energy admitted at the receptive end-organ is transmitted to be discharged into the effector organ. It is rather a complex apparatus, containing reserves of potential energy which can be released upon the application of an adequate stimulus in accordance with a pattern determined by the inherent structure of the apparatus itself. In other words, the nervous discharge [italics of Professor Herrick] is not a mere transmission of the energy of the stimulus, but it implies active consumption of material and release of energy {metabolism) within both the nerve centers and the nerve-fibers. The energy acting upon the effector organ may, therefore, be different in both kind and amount from that applied to the receptive end-organ. The response likewise involves the liberation of the latent energy of the effector (muscle or gland), the nervous impulse serving merely to release the trigger which discharges this reserve energy.'
It is necessary to warn the reader that the human nervous system is structurally of inconceivable complexity. It is estimated that there are in the human brain about twelve thousand millions of nerve cells or neurons, and more than half of these afe in the cerebral cortex. Most probably, the majority of the neurons of the cerebral cortex are directly or indirectly connected with every cortical field. Were we to consider a million cortical nerve cells connected one with another in groups of only two neurons each, and compute the possible combinations, we would find the number of possible interneuronic connection-patterns to be repre-