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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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In my own practice, I have become painfully aware of a similar discrepancy in the learned s.r of some older professors of biology, who quite often try to inform me that 'Life is overlapping', and that 'no sharp distinction between "man" and "animal" can be made'. They forget or do not know that, structurally, actual 'life' is composed of absolute individuals, each one unique and different from all other individuals. Each individual should have its individual name, based on mathematical extensional methods; for instance, xlt x2, x3, .. . xn; of Smith, Smitha., or Fidoi, Fido2,. 'Man' and 'animal' are only labels for verbal fictions and are not labels for an actual living individual. It is obvious that as these verbal fictions, 'man' and 'animal', are not the living individual, their 'overlapping' or 'not overlapping' depends only on our ingenuity, our power of observation and abstraction, and our capacity of coining non-el functional definitions.
Let us see how adaption might work in practice. Let us consider two or three caterpillars, which we may name Ci, C2, C8, since each of them is an absolute individual and different from the others. Let us assume that Ci is positively heliotropic, which means that he is compelled to go toward light; that C2 is negatively heliotropic, which means that he would tend to go away from light; and that Cs is non-heliotropic, which means that light would have no effect on him of a directional character. At a certain age, d would crawl up the tree near which he was born and so reach the leaves, eat them, and, after eating them, would be able to complete his development. C2, and probably C3, would die, as they would not crawl up the tree toward sufficient food. Thus, we see that among the indefinite number of possible individual make-ups of C* (k = 1, 2, 3, . . . n), each one being different, only those which were positively heliotropic would survive under the conditions of this earth, and all the rest would die. The positively heliotropic would propagate and their positive heliotropism might be perpetuated, the negatively heliotropic and non-heliotropic becoming extinct. This would only occur, however, in a world in which trees have roots in the ground and leaves on their parts toward the sun. In a world where the trees grew with their roots toward the sun and leaves in the ground, the reverse would happen; namely, the negatively heliotropic and non-heliotropic would survive, and the positively heliotropic would die out. We can not foretell whether, in such a world, there would be caterpillars; so this is an hypothetical example.
Experiments made with such caterpillars have shown that the positively heliotropic ones crawl toward the sun, even upon a plant which has been turned over, with the roots toward the sun. They crawl away