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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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ordered chains, become impossible. The aphasic seems to have a general incapacity for grasping relations, realizing ordered series, or grasping their succession.7
We see that the problems of order are somehow uniquely important; and so the investigation of the psycho-logics of mathematics, which is based on order, might give us means of at least partial control of different undesirable human semantic afflictions.
But, after all, we should not be surprised that it is so. The structure of nervous systems consists of ordered chains produced by the impact of external and internal stimuli in a four-dimensional space-time manifold, which have a spatial and also a temporal order. The introduction of the finite velocity of nerve currents, which, although known, was, as a rule, disregarded by all of us, introduces automatically our ordering in 'space' and 'time' and, therefore, in space-time. That is why the old anatomical three-dimensional analogies are vicious and false to facts when generalized. For better or worse, we happen to live in a four-dimensional world, where 'space' and 'time' cannot be divided. Whoever does this splitting must introduce fictitious, non-survival entities and influences into his system, which is moulded by this actual world and unable to adjust itself to fictions.
It seems obvious that all these problems of 'adjustment' and 'non-adjustment', 'fictitious'or'actual' worlds., are strictly connected with our s.r toward these problems, and so ultimately with some structural knowledge about them. But attitudes involve lower order abstractions, 'emotions', affective components, and other potent semantic factors which we have usually disregarded when dealing with science and with scientific problems and method. For adjustment, and, therefore, for sanity, we must take into account the neglected aspects of science, of mathematics, and of scientific method; namely, their semantic aspects. In this way we shall abandon that other prevalent structural fiction referred to at the beginning of the present chapter; namely, that science and mathematics have an isolated existence.
The above considerations of order lead to a formulation of a fundamental principle (a principle underlying the whole of the non-aristotelian system) ; namely, that organisms which represent processes must develop in a certain natural survival four-dimensional order, and that the reversal of that order must lead to pathological (non-survival) developments. Observations disclose that, in all human difficulties, 'mental' ills included, a reversal of the natural order can be found as a matter of fact, once we decide to consider order as fundamental. Any identification of inherently different levels, or confusion of orders of abstractions, leads auto-