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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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CHAPTER XIII
ON RELATIONS
To be is to be related. (2«6)                                               cassius j. keyser
Science, in other words, is a system of relations. (417)              H. poincare
Asymmetrical relations are involved in all seriesin space and time, greater and less, whole and part, and many others of the most important characteristics of the actual world. All these aspects, therefore, the logic which reduces everything to subjects and predicates is compelled to condemn as error and mere appearance. <453)                         bbrtrand russell
My own investigations in this field, extending over some fifteen years, together with the facts already at hand, as I see them, have forced me to the conclusion that the organic individual is fundamentally ... a system of relations between a physical substratum or structure and chemical reactions. (90)                                                                              CHARLES M. CHILD
The thalamus, which in the lower vertebrates deprived of the cortex ensures the general reactions of the organism and the elementary mental functions, possesses an affective excitability in relation with the profound biological tendencies of the organism; among the higher mammals, indeed, it seems to preserve this r61e of affective regulation, whose importance in the behaviour of the organism and mental life is so often misunderstood.
(411)                                _                                                               HENRI PIERON
. . .organic impressions ('interoceptive' sensibility) appear in all cases to arrive at the cortex only when translated by the thalamus, with its own affective elaboration. (4ii)                                                    HENRI pieron
Nevertheless, the consuming hunger of the uncritical mind for what it imagines to be certainty or finality impels it to feast upon shadows in the prevailing famine of substance. (22)                                                   E. t. bell
In the foregoing chapters I made use of an expression, 'the organ-ism-as-a-whole', which is employed continually in biology, psychiatry, and other branches of science. This expression is a restricted form of the general structural principle of non-elementalism. This expression implies that an organism is not a mere algebraic sum of its parts, but is more than that, and must be treated as an integrated whole. It was mentioned that the non-additivity and the 'more' than a mere 'sum' are complex problems which call for a new method of analysis. We, have already seen that a simple analysis of the expression, 'Smith kicks Brown', involves a full-fledged structural metaphysics, or set of assumptions and terms which are taken on faith, since they cannot be defined, except circularly. In the present chapter, these subjects of great semantic importance will be developed further.
One of the fundamental structural defects and insufficiencies of the traditional -system was that it had no place for 'relations', since it
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