194 IV. STRUCTURAL FACTORS IN A LANGUAGES
the sub-microscopic levels, may often produce similar end-results. Here I use the term 'false doctrines' in the non-el sense, and, therefore, take into account affective and evaluation-components, which are usually disregarded when we speak about 'false doctrines'.
Here we must consider a problem of crucial, general human significance. It seems evident that evaluation in life, and particularly in human life, represents a most fundamental psycho-logical process underlying motivation and, in general, s.r, which shape our behaviour and result in collective structures which we may call 'stages of civilization'.
We may distinguish three periods of human development as characterized by their standards of evaluation:
1) The pre-human and primitive period of literal, general, and unrestricted identification. The semantics of this period could be formulated roughly as 'everything is everything else', which might be called one-valued semantics.
2) The infantile, or A period of partial or restricted identification, allowing symmetrical relations, to the exclusion of asymmetrical relations. Its semantics involve, among others, the 'law of identity' - 'everything is identical with itself, its two-valued character being expressed by the postulate 'A is B or not B'.
3) The adult, or A, or scientific period based on the complete elimination of identification, by means of asymmetrical and other relations, which establishes structure as the foundation of all 'knowledge'. Its semantics follow the oo-valued semantics of probability and recognize 'equality', 'equivalence'., but no 'identity'.
Before analysing the above three periods separately, it must be stated that 'identity', defined as 'absolute sameness', necessitates 'absolute sameness' in 'all' aspects, never to be found in this world, nor in our heads. Anything with which we deal on the objective levels represents a process, different all the 'time', no matter how slow or fast the process might be; therefore, a principle or a premise that 'everything is identical with itself is invariably false to facts. From a structural point of view, it represents a foundation for a linguistic system non-similar in structure to the world or ourselves. All world pictures, speculations and s.r based on such premises must build for us delusional worlds, and an optimum adjustment to an actual world, so fundamentally different from our fancies, must, in principle, be impossible.
If we take even a symbolic expression 1 = 1, 'absolute sameness' in 'all aspects is equally impossible, although we may use in this connection terms such as 'equal', 'equivalent',. 'Absolute sameness in all aspects' would necessitate an identity of different nervous systems which produce