196 IV. STRUCTURAL FACTORS IN A LANGUAGES
peoples and in cases of 'mentally' ill. In less severe cases of semantic disturbances, we also find identification of different degrees of intensity. The milder cases are usually considered as 'normal', which, in principle, is very harmful, because it establishes an animalistic, or primitive, standard of evaluation for 'normal'. 'Identity', as we have seen, is invariably false to facts; and so identification produces, and must produce, nonsurvival s.r, and, therefore, must be considered pathological for modern man.
That identification afflicts the majority of us today is also shown by experiments with conditional reflexes and the psychogalvanic experiments which show clearly that the majority of humans identify the symbol with actualities, and secretions very often follow. In other words, the reactions are of such a low order of conditionality as we find in animals and in primitive men. In principle, it makes no difference whether a sound (or word), or other signal (symbol) is identified with food or other actualities which are not symbols, and the secretions are produced by the adrenal glands, for instance, resulting in fear or anger, instead of by the salivary or sweat glands. In all such cases, in experiments with humans, the evaluation is false to facts, and the physiological secretion is uncalled for if the evaluation would be appropriate to the situation. In very few instances, the human experiments with conditional and psychogalvanic reflexes break down, in the sense that the signal-symbol is not identified with first order actualities, and so such an organism has no uncontrolled glandular secretions for signal-symbols alone. In a A -system of evaluation, which involves on semantic levels the consciousness of abstracting, these exceptional persons (1933), with proper evaluation and controlled reactions, prove the rule for modern man. In other words, modern man, when he stops the pre-human and primitive identification, will have a much-increased and conscious control of his secretions, colloidal states of his nervous system., and so of his reactions and behaviour. The above applies to all s.r, 'logical' processes included.
Identification is found in all known forms of 'mental' ills. A symbol, in any form, or any s.r may be identified in value with some fictitious 'reality' at a given date, resulting in macro-physiological (glandular, for instance) or micro-physiological (colloidal.,) activities or disturbances which result in particular semantic states and behaviour. It is impossible to deny that 'mentally' ill have inappropriate standards of evaluation, and that identification appears always as an important factor in pathological evaluations. Experiments with 'mentally' ill show clearly that this evaluation can be altered or improved by different chemical