244 IV. STRUCTURAL FACTORS IN A LANGUAGES
The reader should realize that the structurally new language is similar to the structure of our experience, and involves profound methodological and, therefore, psycho-logical, semantic factors. It has entirely different semantic values; and, perhaps, because of this fact, it is an irreversible advance, no matter how details may be altered.
The newtonians, for the most part, overlook the fact that all theories, their own included, are a semantic product of the functioning of the nervous system, and so involve some 'logic' and 'psychology'. In the new theories, a kind of physical subjectivity always appears which ought to be taken care of. We know, for instance, that if we immerse a part of a straight stick in water, the stick appears to be broken, although actually it has not been broken. A photographic camera gives a similar record. So we see that, besides the psycho-logical subjectivity, there is a most important physical subjectivity, which is introduced by the use of instruments. The main difficulties in modern science are precisely in the elimination of this physical subjectivity, particularly when we deal with such minute entities that the light waves miss them. In the case of an hypothetical gamma-ray microscope, for instance, the rays would produce what is called a Compton effect,* and so the results of the experiment would be altered by the instrument and procedure.
We ought not to be surprised that the old systems of 'motion' and 'emotion' in science (Newton) and 'philosophy' (Bergson) should result from speculations on the old A el language and the introduction of fanciful and fallacious assumptions of an 'infinity' somewhere, and other fancies. The realization of this marks a new semantic epoch in our lives. It is to the credit of these two men that they have summarized these old tendencies in such a masterly way that we are enabled to go beyond them. We shall return to this subject when we analyse the four-dimensional 'world' of Minkowski, and, then, we shall summarize briefly what we now know about 'space', 'time', and 'matter' (see Parts IX and X).
♦Compton discovered, in 1923, that the generation of secondary continuous Rontgen radiation by a primary radiation is accomplished by an increase in the wave-length.