# SCIENCE AND SANITY - online book

### An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

 MATHEMATICS AND THE WORLD 265 'plus' two atoms of hydrogen, under proper conditions, will produce water, of which the characteristics are not the sum of the characteristics of oxygen and hydrogen 'added' together, but entirely new characteristics emerge. These may some day be taken care of by non-linear equations, when our knowledge has advanced considerably. These problems are unusually important and vital, because with our present low development and the lack of structural researches, we still keep an additive A language, which is, perhaps, able to deal with additive, simple, immediate, and comparatively unimportant issues, but is entirely unfit structurally to deal with principles which underlie the most fundamental problems of life. Similarly, in physics, only since Einstein have we begun to see that the primitive, simplest, and easiest to solve linear equations are not structurally adequate. One of the most marked structural characteristics of the empirical world is 'change', 'motion', 'waves', and similar dynamic manifestations. Obviously, a language of similar structure must have means to deal with such relations. In this respect, mathematics is unique, because, in the differential and integral calculus, the four-dimensional geometries and similar disciplines, with all their developments, we find such a perfect language to be explained more in detail in the chapters which follow. It will be profitable for our purpose to discuss, in the next chapter, some of the mathematical structural characteristics in connection with their similarity to the human nervous system; but here I will add only that, for our purposes, at this particular point, we must specially emphasize arithmetical language, which means numbers and arithmetical operations, the theory of function, the differential and integral calculus (language) and different geometries in their two aspects, 'pure' and applied. Indeed, Riemann tells us bluntly that the science of physics originated only with the introduction of differential equations, a statement which is quite justified, but to which I would add, that physics is becoming scientific since we began to eliminate from physics semantic disturbances; namely, identification and elementalism. This movement was originated, in fact, although not stated in an explicit form, by the Einstein theory and the new quantum theories, the psycho-logical trend of which is formulated in a general semantic theory in the present work. It is reasonable to consider that metric geometry, and, in particular, the -system, was derived from touch, and, perhaps, the 'kinesthetic sense', and projective geometry from sight. Although the issues presented here appear extremely simple, and sometimes even commonplace, yet the actual working out of the verbal