GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 319
not need any term like 'ether', as his 'plenum', structurally, covers the ground, without his committing himself to a definite two-valued mechanistic ether. The confusion of orders of abstractions, from which we all suffer, is semantic, and is due to disregard of the structure and role of language. If we accept a non-el language of space-time, structurally we deal with fulness, and we should not use the term 'space', as its old semantic implications are 'emptiness' and so are very confusing. The 'sensation' of Einstein's declaration amounts to the fact that the sub-microscopic fulness ('space') is more important than a few kinks or concentrations of that fulness ('matter'), - a fact which science ha? established, and which is quite obvious.
Experiments with 'conditioned reflexes' have established firmly th< fact that stimuli can be compounded, and that, when established, the compound stimulus acts as a unit, and that a change in the four-dimensional order of factors (including delays) acts as a different stimulus, not necessarily resulting in the established reflex. This often introduces great complexities.
As an example of this, we will use the so-called 'delayed reflex'. When established, the 'conditioned reflex' does not appear at once after the stimulation, but after the stimulation combined with the usual 'time'-delay has occurred, thus showing that the 'time' factor plays a physiological role in a compound stimulus. Organisms live in, and consist of, periodic processes, such as the alternation of day and night, sleep, taking in food, heart-beats, breathing, electronic pulsations.; so that any stimulus, no matter how nominally 'simple', is, in reality, a compound stimulus of, let us say, x and y heart-beats and what not. An organism represents, invariably, a clock of some sort, and, when that clock stops, life ceases.
Under such actual structural conditions a four-dimensional analysis makes every 'simple' stimulus compound, and thus four-dimensional order becomes a potent physiological factor, exerting definite effects. The interplay of four-dimensional order of factors represents, in general, a new stimulus; we have an interplay of positive and negative excitations which may lead to clashes between the two that the nervous system finds difficult to resolve, and so pathological results follow.
If we pass to sub-microscopic levels and processes, we find that. although we may speak of them as 'chemical' or 'stimuli of greater physiological strength'., yet, by structural necessity, they represent different kinds of multi-dimensional order, because, as we say in 1933, the dynamic physical unit of that order is a quantum of action. The metaphysician should not get excited about this statement, because whatever