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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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CHAPTER XXI
ON CONDITIONAL REFLEXES
The conditioned reflex is conventionally regarded as differing essentially from the unconditioned reflex, but this is contradicted by evidence drawn from the development of behavior. (107)                                  G. E. Coghill
The main experiments of Pavlov were made on dogs, animals with a rather well-developed nervous system; and so most of what he has to say is about dogs, although some general physiological facts apply to all the higher nervous systems, man included. In some instances; because of human complexities, some results must be re-interpreted, structural linguistic re-adjustments made, and some obscuring, wrong-in-structure, el 'psychological' terms analysed and rejected. My linguistic, structural, non-el, theoretical revision leads to a new and important enlargement of the application to man of the Pavlov experimental theory of 'conditioned' reflexes. The fact that these independent discoveries reinforce and support each other is a striking instance of the usefulness of theoretical researches.
We must take care to notice and beware of the differences in languages. Any happening has as many aspects as there are sciences, or even human interests. Thus, if we speak about an objective 'pencil', we may speak about its chemistry, or methods of manufacturing, its uses, prices, markets,. As the content of knowledge is structural, we must search empirically for structure, understood nowadays always on three levels (the term being multiordinal), the macroscopic gross structure, the microscopic, and sub-microscopic structures.
When we deal with life phenomena, we have also different languages dealing with their different aspects. Thus, a biological language would cover eventually the vital events in general; "a physiological language would be narrower and cover the analysis of phenomena in an organism, the function of its organs and the conditions and the mechanism which determine these functions; a neurological language would be physiological as applied only to the nervous system. The day is not distant when all these problems will be formulated in the language of the quantum mechanics.
A psycho-logical language is legitimate only on human levels, as we never know, or can know, what an animal 'thinks', 'feels'., and on human levels it applies to so-called 'psychic' phenomena only.
Usually, one extremely fundamental semantic fact is disregarded; namely, that what on the psycho-logical level is objective and in language descriptive to one person (e.g., 'my toothache'), is inferential to the other
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