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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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help digestion, or to wash the mouth out and eliminate it. But observation shows further that other factors, not food or noxious materials alone, may produce similar secretions. Thus, for instance, the sight or smell of some such material, or of the person who usually administers it, or even the latter's footsteps may produce salivary secretions.
To make the experiments as exact as possible, the dogs observed by Pavlov were submitted to minor operations. Among others, the opening of the salivary duct was transplanted to the outside of the skin, so that all secretions could be carefully and exactly collected and measured.
The principle which underlies these experiments is the observation that if we combine some hitherto neutral stimulus, such as a definite tone, colour, or shape, with the presenting of the food or acid, after a few trials this neutral stimulus acquires the potentiality of producing similar secretory effects as the food or acid itself.
This fundamental and exact method of experimentation allows considerable freedom in the selection of neutral stimuli, affecting, as we prefer, the visual, or auditory, or tactile, or other nerve centres of the animal. We can also control their numbers, intensity, their combinations, the order and delays in their application,.
If food or noxious materials are placed in the mouth, the secretion of saliva is an almost automatic reaction, owing to the physico-chemical action of these materials. Such reaction is inborn and practically general for a given species, the nervous paths for such reactions being mostly completed at birth. Not so with the reactions produced by neutral stimuli, which acquire the secretory characteristics only after some experiences. These characteristics are reactions acquired during individual life, and the nervous paths and connections have to be completed during the lifetime of the individual.
Thus, when puppies are shown meat or bread, which they had never eaten before, usually no salivary secretion appears. Only after eating meat and bread on several occasions will the sight of them produce secretions.
Some of the effects of these acquired reactions are very strong and lasting. In some experiments, the dogs were given a hypodermic injection of morphine. The usual effect of the drug is to produce nausea with profuse secretion of saliva, followed by vomiting and deep sleep. In further experimenting, it was found that the preliminaries, or even seeing the experimenter, without injection, was often enough to produce the effects of the actual injection of the drug.
Pavlov studied the nervous mechanism of the functioning of the salivary glands, not because of any special physiological importance of