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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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to the environment, as there is no such thing as anything without environment. The stimulus, in the meantime, establishes structurally a functional polarity as a fundamental characteristic of all, even most primitive, protoplasm, and as the result of the contact of sensitive and conducting colloidal structures with the environment.2
In sponges, which have primitive muscular tissue but no nervous system, the muscular tissue exhibits also both characteristics, combining receptive and motor functions, showing that from the start the supposed muscles are, in reality, neuro-motor organs.3 The actinians have no central nervous system. By the aid of an incision, we may produce in them special additional growths of tentacles sometimes with a mouth, sometimes without. If, in the last case, we place a piece of food in the tentacles, they will bend toward where the mouth should be. If we cut such a tentacle away from the body, we still find that in contact with food it will bend in the one direction. But here we are dealing not only with the sub-microscopic dynamic structure but with macroscopic structure, where the irritability and the structure of the peripheral organs determine the reaction.*
When we experiment with animals with a more developed nervous system, such as ascidians or worms, we come to new and very instructive facts. Loeb has removed the ganglion from a number of Ciona intes-tinalis, a large transparent ascidian, which normally, when touched at the oral or aboral opening, closes the openings, and the whole animal contracts into a small ball. It appears that a few hours after the operation mentioned they relax. If a drop of water falls on such an animal, the characteristic reaction appears again, showing that the reaction was not due to the ganglion but is determined by the structure and arrangement of the peripheral parts and the muscles. The nerves and the ganglion play only the main role as a quicker conductor for the stimulus.
Even in higher animals we find vestiges of such primitive generalized mechanisms. For instance, Loeb, in his experiments in removing the brain from sharks, found that, even after death and when signs of decomposition had already begun, light produced a contraction of the pupils.5
In a decapitated worm, practically all normal reactions are retained. If we cut the nervous system of a worm in two, the two parts of the worm move in a co-ordinated way as long as they are connected by a little bit of tissue. The experiments were carried further: a worm was cut in two completely, the two halves were connected by a string, and they still moved in a co-ordinated way, showing once more that originally the nervous system was a specialization of general protoplasmic characteristics of irritability and conductivity and structure, which, at present,