348 VI. ON PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
Obviously, when the starfish is put on its back, a new stimulus-complex is operating upon it, resulting in a complex adjustment.7
As we already know, any stimulus applied to a bit of living protoplasm, because of the colloidal structure and of the inherent irritability and conductivity of the plenum, produces a physiological gradient, establishing, thus, some sort of polarity, symmetry, relations, order, and structure, and indicating what structure our language should have. Again, no trace of any 'inhibition' or 'prohibition' is found, and on the silent, un-speakable, objective level everything happens the usual way, without any regard to, or respect for, our talking. Talking only becomes a very genuine danger when on language of primitive structure we build our creeds, institutions, rules of conduct., and our methods of investigation. In the last case, our sciences are nearly as slow, halting, perplexing, difficult, non-co-ordinated, and, in a larger sense, ineffective, as our creeds and institutions have proven to be. Our sciences may have added to our comfort, but, outside of psychiatry, they have not contributed much to human happiness.
As structure seems so fundamental and can be discovered everywhere, we should not be surprised to find that in structure, or perhaps, still better, in the general structuro-sensitive-conductive dynamic complex with definite structure on different levels, we shall find the solution for obvious positive reactions of organisms, as well as for the lack of them.
It is not possible or necessary to go into further details here. The structural data, however, although they are not particularly emphasized, are given in handbooks of physics, colloidal chemistry, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, biology, physiology, neurology,. At present, it is realized in science that structure is of extreme importance; but, because of identification, it is not realized that structure is the only possible content of science and of all human 'knowledge'. This fact, of course, makes the quest of science uniquely structural. Because of it, we come to a very far-reaching general rule, that all 'understanding', to be such, must exhibit or assume structure, thus formulating the supreme aim, and, perhaps, uniquely indicating the only possible method, of science.
Two more simple examples may be helpful. Mnemiopsis or Eucharis have swimming plates which beat rhythmically, with considerable regularity. When the plates are stimulated mechanically, the movement ceases in the presence of sufficient calcium salts in the water. In similar media, but containing no calcium, a mechanical stimulus does not stop the movement of the plates, but just the opposite. It accelerates their motion, showing clearly that the effect of direct stimulation can