ON THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIAL 387
pictorial notions taken from the quantum theory. There is no doubt that the day is not far off when the unified field theory will be extended to include the new quantum theory, and so this anticipation does not appear illegitimate.
If we take something, anything, let us say the object already referred to, called 'pencil', and enquire what it represents, according to science 1933, we find that the 'scientific object' represents an 'event', a mad dance of 'electrons', which is different every instant, which never repeats itself, which is known to consist of extremely complex dynamic processes of very fine structure, acted upon by, and reacting upon, the rest of the universe, inextricably connected with everything else and dependent on everything else. If we enquire how many characteristics (m.o) we should ascribe to such an event, the only possible answer is that we should ascribe to an event infinite numbers of characteristics, as it represents a process which never stops in one form or another; neither, to the best of our knowledge, does it repeat itself.
In our diagram, Fig. 1, we indicate this by a parabola (A), which is supposed to extend indefinitely, which extension we indicate by a broken off line (B). We symbolize the characteristics by small circles (C), the number of which is obviously indefinitely great.
Underneath, we symbolize the 'object' by the circle (O), which has a finite size. The characteristics of the object we also denote by similar little circles (C). The number of characteristics which an object has is large but finite, and is denoted by the finite number of the small circles (C).
Then we attach a label to the object, its name, let us say 'pencili', which we indicate in our diagram by the label (L). We ascribe, also, characteristics to the labels, and we indicate these characteristics by the little circles (C").
The number of characteristics which we ascribe by definition to the label is still smaller than the number of characteristics the object has. To the label 'pencilx' we would ascribe, perhaps, its length, thickness, shape, colour, hardness,. But we would mostly disregard the accidental characteristics, such as a scratch on its surface, or the kind of glue by which the two wooden parts of the objective 'pencil' are held together,. If we want an objective 'pencil' and come to a shop to purchase one, we say so and specify verbally only these characteristics which are of particular immediate interest to us.
It is clear that the object is often of interest to us for some special characteristics of immediate usefulness or value. If we enquire as to the neurological processes involved in registering the object, we find that the