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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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is generally not changed when the verbal issues are neither seen not heard but originate in ourselves. Most 'impulses', 'interests', 'meanings', 'evaluations'., originate in lower centres and follow the usual course, from lower centres to higher. When 'experience' (reaction of lower centres) is transformed into 'memories' (higher centres)., the order is similar. Difficulties begin when the order is pathologically reversed and 'ideas' are evaluated as experience, words as objects,. In the building of language a similar process can be observed. We observe the absolute individuals with which we actually deal, we label them with individual
the whole group without singling out individual characteristics.
All words of the type of 'man', 'animal', 'house', 'chair', 'pencil'., have been built by a similar process of abstraction, or disregard for individual differences. In each case of disregard of individual characteristics a new neurological process was involved.
Similarly, with 'statements about a statement'. When we hear a statement, or see it in a written form, such a statement becomes a stimulus entering through the lower centres, and a statement about it represents, in general, a new process of abstraction, or an abstraction of higher order.
It becomes obvious that the introduction of a language of 'different order of abstractions', although it is not familiar, yet structurally it represents very closely, in terms of order, most fundamental neurological processes going on in us. As we already know, a natural order has been established by evolution; namely, lower order abstractions first, higher next; the identifications of orders or the reversal of orders appears pathological for man and appears as a confusion of orders of abstractions, resulting in false evaluation: identification, illusions, delusions, and hallucinations.
Historically, the first to pay serious attention to the above problems in a consistent, yet very limited, way were mathematicians. In the investigation of the problems of the foundation of mathematics, mathematical 'logic', and the theory of aggregates, we came across self-contradictions which would make mathematics impossible. To avoid such a disaster, Russell invented what is called the 'theory of mathematical