ON NON-ARISTOTELIAN TRAINING 475
stratification indicates the difference, or ordering of different order abstractions; the vertical stratification indicates the difference between 'man' and 'animal' and the differences between the different absolute individuals. In both cases, the semantic effect of the 'is' of identity is counteracted.
The above procedure in training has an important neurological foundation. Besides what has been explained already, we find that a word has four principal characteristics with corresponding cortical representations. A word can be heard, seen, spoken, and written. Language, thus, involves many nervous functions; e.g., auditory, visual, and diversified motor nerve centres, interconnected in a most complex network of 'horizontal' and 'vertical' fibres. The use of the Differential involves all available nervous channels; we see, we hear, we speak, we move our hands, indicating stratification, 'non-allness'., engaging large cortical areas, and so have the maximum probability of affecting, through non-el methods, the organism-as-a-whole. The Differential gives us a special, simplified, yet advanced interracial structural symbolism (1933), which affects wide nervous areas of the illiterate, or nearly illiterate person, or of the infant., which otherwise could not be affected. It is known that extensive reading and writing, as well as speaking a number of languages, has a very marked cultural effect and helps visualization and consciousness of abstracting. The reason can be found, perhaps, in the fact that a learned polyglot, or a scholar, utilizes many nerve centres in co-ordination. In the older days, unless one became a scholar of some sort, it was extremely difficult to train these nerve centres in co-ordination. With the Differential we can train simply, and comparatively f|iiickly, all necessary nerve centres, and so impart to children and to practically illiterate persons the cultural results of prolonged and difficult university training without any complicated technique. This last should always be regarded as a means and not as an end.
In my experience with children, and with men from the lowest 'mentality' to the highest, the non-identity of different orders of abstractions is usually taken lightly. It all seems so simple and self-evident that no one assumes that there could be serious, unconscious, structural, semantic, linguistic, and neurological delusional mechanisms involved, which cannot be reached without specially devised non-identity training. The delusional feelings of 'allness' and 'identity' are peculiar in that, like other pathological states, they tend to appear as all-pervading. It is the most difficult in daily, as well as in medical, experience to make a breach in this all-pervading tendency, but once this delusional state is even partially replaced by glimpses of m.o reality, the further elabora-