SCIENCE AND SANITY - online book

An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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Common sense, do what it will, cannot avoid being surprised occasionally. The object of science is to spare it this emotion and create mental habits which shall be in such close accord with the habits of the world as to secure that nothing shall be unexpected. (457)                               bertrand russell
Medicine is to-day an Art or Calling, to whose exercise certain Sciences are no doubt ancillary; but she has forfeited pretension to be deemed a Science, because her Professors and Doctors decline to define fundamentals or to state first principles, and refuse to consider, in express terms, the relations between Things, Thoughts and Words involved in their communications to others. (122)                                                   f. G. crookshank
Unless physiology like any other of the sciences basic to medicine will teach less fact and more method, it might as well be deleted from the catalogue.
Can anything be done to help the situation? Not, I think, without large vision. The student of medicine needs not more external but more internal discipline.*                                                              martin h. Fischer
I wonder how soon we shall be far enough along to have the physician ask: How much and what, if anything, is structural? how much functional, somatic or metabolic? how much constitutional, psychogenic and social?**
Section A. General.
The name of Freud is usually associated with the term 'the unconscious'. This term appears as a general descriptive term standing for a great many psycho-logical semantic processes. In 1933 the work of Freud is generally accepted as important and very suggestive, although further experiments by many research workers and practicians have shown that the freudian formulations have not the exclusiveness formerly assumed for them.
It is useless to deny that the term 'unconscious' is fundamental and necessary. The use of the term is best shown in the study of hypnotic phenomena. Some patients do certain things under hypnotic influence, and then seemingly lose all memory traces of such doings upon emerging from hypnosis. Careful experiments showed that after prolonged efforts these recollections could be made accessible to the patients' waking consciousness. The difficulty in recalling was not ordinary 'forgetting'. What is 'forgotten' can also be spontaneously 'recollected'. Here the situation seemed different, in that these lost 'memories' required considerable work and effort for their reconstruction. The psycho-logical
♦Teaching of Physiology. Jour. Asso. Med. Colleges. Apr. 1929.
**The "Complaint" as the Center of Genetic-Dynamic and Nosological Teaching In Psychiatry New Eng. Jour, if Med. Aug. 23, 1928.