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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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hopes are premature. Perhaps a new race can accomplish it after this one is extinct, with the exception of a few remnants in museums.
The problems of determinism and indeterminism are not purely 'academic' but influence, to a large extent, our theories and behaviour, and so are fundamental for adjustment. Historically, science has utilized determinism of the two-, and three-valued variety, which has lately, in the case of the newer quantum mechanics, proved insufficient. The lack of the formulation of oo-valued semantics, necessary for oo-valued determinism, seemed to indicate that even science tends to drift toward indeterminism, a tendency which was rather baffling and disturbing to many scientists.
Different 'ethics' and 'morals' have fought determinism throughout all our past on the ground that in a deterministic world all 'morals' and 'ethics' would be impossible. If a man is compelled to do something, then, we are told, he is not responsible. They state that the result would be undesirable licence, forgetting that determinism implies quite the opposite of licence.
We have already become acquainted with infantile self-love and self-importance. These infantile characteristics have not only shaped our semantic attitudes, but also our 'scientific' theories. Smith and this little earth were in many ways postulated as the centre of the universe. Scientific discoveries showed that such statements did not cover the facts at hand, and Smith was displaced from this primitive and infantile self-centred position. The Polish astronomer Copernicus was the first to give this rude shock. The little earth was no longer the 'centre of the universe'. Next came Darwin with another shock to such infantile pride. Smith was no longer a 'special creation', but belonged to the general series of living forms, none of which were 'special creations'. Finally, Freud developed the notion that even in semantic processes, determinism prevails. All our actions, psycho-logical and semantic states., have very definite conscious and unconscious psychophysiological 'causes' which activate us.
An infantile society had difficulties in abandoning their pleasing delusions, and these three men were duly persecuted, criticized, and bitterly attacked and hated by many.
The present situation may appear baffling because science discovers facts which would seem to lead to an 'undesirable' indeterminism in science, and to a determinism in 'mental' processes. The reader, by now, I hope, realizes that both 'undesirable' results are only undesirable because of identification and the confusion of orders of abstractions, which resulted in the ascribing of undue generality and uniqueness to the A