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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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The tensor calculus is an extension of the vector calculus, which has become famous since Einstein. It gives us formulations independent of any special frame of reference. In using it we are automatically prevented from ascribing to the events around us characteristics which do not belong to them. The tensor equations give us absolute formulations, absolute being understood as relative, no matter to what. Obviously the only language fit to express the 'laws of nature' should be independent of the particular point of view or language of some observer. It should give us formulations invariant for any and all systems of reference, although we might use preferred systems of reference, as, for instance, the principal axes of an ellipse, without any danger. The reader should not miss the point that such an ideal should be considered as the highest ideal in science. It is the mathematical species of a theory of 'universal agreement'. The above sounds simple and innocent; but, when actually applied, plays havoc with most of our old 'universal laws'. These laws do not survive this important and uniquely valid test, and so become mere local gossip instead of being the 'universal laws' that they claim to be. We will return to the structural problem of invariant formulations later. At present we must explain some other simple considerations.
On any surface we need two numbers or 'co-ordinates' to specify the position of a point, and so a surface is called a two-dimensional manifold. Points in three-dimensional manifolds require three numbers; points in four-dimensional manifolds four numbers; and similarly for any number of dimensions.
For our purpose, it is enough to speak in two dimensions, as our statements can easily be generalized to any number of dimensions. If we want to localize a point on a surface it is enough to divide the surface into meshes by any two line-systems which cross each other. By labeling the lines of each system with consecutive numbers, two numbers, one from each system, will specify a particular mesh. If the meshes are small enough we will be able to locate any point accurately.
These specifying labels or numbers require that we know what kind of mesh we are using. Distances between points are independent of mesh systems.
For the above reasons it is important to have more data about the mesh system we are using, which means that we have formulae which express the distance between two points, which is independent of the mesh systems, in terms of the mesh system.
We have already seen, in our study of the differential calculus, that, as a rule, it is simpler to deal with very short distances, and that it is easy to pass to larger distances by the process of integration. As yet we have used only plane rectangular systems of meshes in our illustrations, but this restriction is not necessary. If we use oblique co-ordinates (Fig. 4), the formula for the elemental distance is where' cosine of the angle between the lines of partition.
The polar co-ordinates (Fig. 5) of the point P are the distanceof
the point from the origin 0, and the angle,, between the line OP