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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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■tructural and semantic innovation; namely, that it is a language for describing action by contact, in sharp contradistinction to the structural assumption of action at a distance.
Let us illustrate the above by a structural example. Consider a series of equal small material spheres connected with each other by small spiral springs as shown on Fig. 1.
These little spheres all have inertia, because of which, and because of the little springs, they resist displacement. If we displace the first of our spheres either in the transverse or longitudinal direction, it acts upon the second sphere, which in turn acts upon the third ,. We see that the disturbance of equilibrium of the first little sphere is transmitted like a wave to the next sphere and so along the whole series. The most significant point in the analysis of such a wave of excitation is that it is not transmitted with some 'infinite velocity', or 'infinitely quickly' or in 'no time'. The action of each sphere is slightly delayed owing to its inertia, that is, it does not respond 'instantaneously' to an impulse. It must be noticed that the displacement is not due to a velocity, but to an acceleration, which is a change of velocity and requires a short interval of 'time'. The change in velocity again requires an interval of 'time' to overcome inertia and produce displacement. Similar reasoning applies to a long train just being started by the engine. The cars being coupled together by more or less elastic means, the engine may be moving uniformly and some of the last cars still be stationary. The pull of the engine is not transmitted instantaneously but with a finite velocity, due again to the inertia of the cars.
We see that the only structurally adequate means of describing changes in continuous, deformable materials is to be found in differential equations which express a method of dealing with action by contact.
We have already seen that this action by contact involves also the finite velocity of propagation, a fact of crucial structural and semantic importance. In the history of science we can distinguish three periods. The first was naturally the period of action at a distance, the best exemplified by the work of two great men, Euclid and Newton. In it we find of course, a superabundance of 'infinities'. With the advent of the differential calculus, and the introduction of differential equations in the study of nature, the notion of action at a distance became more and more untenable. We had a period of pseudo-contiguous action, which indeed involved differential equations; but the velocity of propagation was not introduced explicitly, and so there remained an implicit structural assumption of 'infinite velocity' of propagation. As an example of such pseudo-contiguous action we can cite the older theories of potential, which give differential equations for the change in the intensity of the field from place to place,