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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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but only their differential properties, the coefficients of the measure determination, the invariants which we can form, and the curvature and its measure. The form of a surface and its characteristics can then be calculated by a process similar to the solution of differential equations in physics.
We are now in a position to understand why the newer physics and the systems, which are built entirely on the foundations of action by contact, found the .E-system unsatisfactory. The-system was built on the structural assumption of action at a distance, and we had to select thegeometries as originated by Gauss, Lobatchevski, Riemann, and others, which gave to physics the necessary geometry of action by contact.
But the question of action at a distance versus action by contact has also an experimental aspect which makes the latter theory more satisfactory.
Faraday (1791-1867) was not a learned academician, and he was much freer from scientific prejudices than any of his contemporaries. From a bookbinder's apprentice he became through his genius one of the founders of modern physics. His method of experimenting was to try every possible experiment and note what happened,
In 1838 Faraday made an important structural discovery; namely, that the mutual action between two electrically charged bodies depends upon the character of the intervening medium. Faraday established by this experiment that the capacity of a spherical condenser changes when another material is used as the separating medium, rather than air. He found that the capacity became twice as large when the medium was paraffin, three times as large for shellac, six times as large for glass, and about eighty times as large for water.
This experiment became the foundation of the new theory. The old 'action at a distance' theory postulated that the electrostatic field was merely a geometrical structure without physical significance, while this new experiment showed that the field had physical significance. Every charge acts first upon its immediate surroundings, and it is only through the medium of these that the action is propagated. The discovery of displacement currents necessitated an extension of his point of view to all distances.3
Faraday was so impressed by this discovery that he abandoned the older theories of action at a distance and formulated a structurally new theory of contiguous action for electric and magnetic events. Any one                                    Fig. 2
can convince himself of the fact that the fields represent very actual physical conditions by taking a sheet of paper, sprinkling some iron dust upon it and