THE NEWER 'MATTER'
The twofold nature of light as a light-wave and as a light-quantum is thus extended to electrons and, further, to atoms: their wave-nature is asserting itself more and more, theoretically and experimentally, as concurrent with their corpuscular nature. (48D a. sommerfeld
The concepts of wave amplitude, electric and magnetic field strengths, energy density, etc., were originally derived from primitive experiences of daily life, such as the observation of water waves or the vibrations of elastic bodies. (215) w. heisenberg
The problem of quantum theory centers on the fact that the particle picture and the wave picture are merely two different aspects of one and the same physical reality. (2is> w. heisenberg
_ To me it seems extraordinarily difficult to tackle problems of the above kind, as long as we feel obliged on epistemological grounds to repress intuition in atomic dynamics, and to operate only with such abstract ideas as transition probabilities, energy levels, etc. (466) e. schrodinger
. . . for visualization, however, we must content ourselves with two incomplete analogiesthe wave picture and the corpuscular picture. (215)
Not every physicist is an epistemologist, and not everyone must or can be one. Special investigation claims a whole man, so does the theory of knowledge. (326) e. mach
The following chapter was written in 1928 and since then the newer quantum mechanics has been developed much further, proved enormously fruitful, and has been repeatedly supported by experiments. The literature on this subject is steadily accumulating, the most important classical memoirs by the originators of this new scientific trend have been collected into book form and are now easily accessible. There is also a large number of excellent technical, as well as non-technical presentations. On reading in December 1932 what I had written in 1928, I find that although from some aspects the presentation may be considered unsatisfactory and antiquated, yet the epistemological side of the older presentation remains valid. So it seems advisable to retain this chapter and add only a few furthersuggestions.
It is known that practically all creative and constructive physicists, who have produced revolutionary and lasting works, were interested in epistemology. There are many physicists who know as much physics as an Einstein, for instance, yet Einstein remains quite unique and his work is to a large extent responsible for the present revolutionary developments of physics. The reason is simple. Einstein has corrected a long established epistemological fallacy, which can be expressed in my language as the rejection of the structural fallacy of elementalism in a limited yet very important field of physics. He also established and applied new fundamental epistemological principles, which is another