THE NEWER 'MATTER'
by gamma-rays, the rays would disturb the experiment, and in our fundamental
equation,, by which the 'position' was to be determined, the
'momentum' would thereby be disturbed. This change of 'momentum' would be greater the shorter the wave-length of the rays used; and the shorter the wave-length of the ray, the more accurate the determination of 'position' would be. Hence, the more exactly a co-ordinate q could be found, the less exactly could its momentum p be found, and vice versa.
So we have to introduce corrections for errors, and have to introduce 'mean values' and 'probability functions', which we can develop and compute. Lately, Bohr has further developed the probability aspects of the newer quantum mechanics but I have not seen this work. Heisenberg introduces 'probability packets' which correspond to the 'wave packets' of Schrodinger.
It is difficult to speak briefly, and yet in a satisfactory way, about these new developments, and particularly difficult to give credit properly to different authors. All their works are interwoven and at present they all really work together in spite of the fact that historically some of these theories have been developed independently.
What we call today, for the sake of brevity, the Heisenberg theory, because of its originator, has been further developed by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, and others. Later, when the wave-mechanics appeared, all the new theories were finally fused into a very elaborate and impressive structure.
Historically, P. A. M. Dirac worked at the theory from a different mathematical point of view, utilizing what is called the 'Poisson bracket' method. In this treatment the difficulties of the matrix calculus were avoided. He introduced dynamical variables which he called the q numbers. These do not obey the commutative law of multiplication although the c numbers (classical) do. He also considered the difference of the non-commutative products xy yx, where x and y are functions, respectively, of the co-ordinates qi . . . q and of the momenta pi. . . p, of a multiple periodic system with 5 degrees of freedom.
Dirac has generalized the matrix theory and the Schrodinger equations. His work seems to be most important, in physics and mathematics, but it is not possible for us to consider it here in any detail.9
Let us recall once more that there are fundamental differences between the different orders of abstraction, and that we all have to abstract in different orders. From this point of view it is natural that every theory, even if expressed at present in a form which cannot be visualized, like the Heisenberg theory or the original Dirac theory, has sooner or later to be expressed in a structural form which can be visualized. These problems have really nothing, or at most very little, to do with the world around us. They are concerned with the neurological structure which produces all theories.
Theories of a structure such as that of the Heisenberg theory are extremely important, as already explained, but in them we lose the help of 'intuition'. Now 'intuition' (lower centres) has two quite different effectssometimes it leads us astray, but on other occasions it helps greatly.