# SCIENCE AND SANITY - online book

### An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

 THE THEORY OF TYPES 743 "heterological," must be distinguished from that class which was determined not by properties, but by the relationship between properties and substantives. If there were a property like autologicality and if "heterofogical" had that property,1 it would be a member of the heterological class, for it would express a property which it did not possess. But it would also be a member of the class of words which possessed autologicality and could thus be classified. Thus if "heterological" had the property of autologicality, it would be in the heterological class owing to the relation which held between the property and substantive (or between a property it possessed and the property it expressed) ; but it would be in the class of autological words, owing to a property it possessed. If it had the property of heterologicality, it would be in the autor logical class on the basis of the relation, and in the class of heterological words on the basis of property classification. There is no difficulty in considering something as a member of two distinct classes, owing to the employment of different methods of classification. There is no contradiction in saying: " 'heterological' expresses the property heterologicality, possesses the property autologicality, and the relation between these properties is heterological, or that it expresses and possesses the property heterologicality and the relation between them is autological." Similarly, Richard's contradiction, Berry's contradiction, and that involving the least indefinable ordinal, are resolvable by recognising that "nameable" and "indefinable" are used in two sharply distinguishable senses. They do not require a hierarchy, but a discrimination in the methods of description. When a distinction is made between a class and its membership (the distinction between a number of numbers and a number is a particular case of this), and between a relation of objects and a relation of relations, the requirements for the solution of the other mathematical problems are provided. A class is other than its members, and a relation, like all universals, transcends any given instance or totality of instances. As they have characters of their own, universals can be described in terms of other universals, which in turn transcend them. Arguments are of a different "type" than functions, just so far as they have different logical characteristics, i.e. are different kinds of logical facts. The class which is an argument to a function about classes has, as argument, a different logical import than the function, and its arguments have a different import from it. This is true of all functions, restricted and unrestricted alike, for it means simply that they are discriminable from their arguments. They can, despite this difference, have characteristics in common with their arguments, and are to that extent unrestricted. Thus in the case of "the class of those classes which are identical with themselves," the class of classes can be 1'Heterological,' in fact, has the properties of being long, polysyllabic, etc., and it is questionable whether there are properties like autologicality and heterologicality possessed by words. If there be no such properties, "heterological'' is a member of the class of long words, polysyllabic words, etc. In addition it would be one of the terms related by the heterological relation, which fact would not make it have the Property of heterologicality.