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An Introduction To Non-aristotelian Systems And General Semantics.

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we find object first, label next. Descriptions first, inferences next. The above natural order establishes also a natural order of evaluation. Proper evaluation becomes the foundation for survival, non-el s.r; the more so since evaluation requires asymmetrical relations of 'more' or 'less'. , impossible to handle properly in an A -system. Thus the most important level is represented by the sub-microscopic processes. What the organism needs is not the three-dimensional shadow of a four-dimensional event, not the abstraction of low order produced by our nervous systems, called the object, but the sub-microscopic dynamic processes without which the desired end-results would not happen. The animal, the primitive, the infant, the ignorant man identify the two; live in a delusional world. Similarly the objective levels are more important than the verbal levels, and descriptions are more important than inferences. If we identify any orders while the natural order is established by the asymmetrical relation of 'more', the semantic process of evaluation is reversed and appears pathological in different degrees. If and we make
them delusionally equal in value (identify), then, in the false-to-fact relation o= b we have either over-evaluated the right-hand side or under-evaluated the left-hand side; in both cases reversing the natural order of evaluation. It is important to notice that by basing our s.r on a natural order of evaluation, general semantics become a generalized science of order and values, a very secure guide in life, indispensable for sanity, as experiments have shown, and include also generalized mathematics.
Another very serious mechanism of identification is found in language.
A)  Thus we have only one name, say 'apple' for the: (a) un-speakable, un-eatable event or scientific process; (6) the un-speakable but eatable abstraction of low order, the object; (c) the un-speakable and un-eatable 'mental* picture, or higher order abstraction, on semantic levels; (d) and for a definition on verbal levels.                                                                                              (38)
B)  The multiordinality of terms was not discovered until 1925 and is still generally unknown. It presents a serious difficulty facilitating, perhaps even necessitating, identification unless prevented by special formulations and training. Multiordinal terms sound and look alike on all levels; experience has shown how easy it is to confuse their orders and identify the many values into one.                                                                                                         (39)
C)  The differentiation between descriptions and inferences, and particularly between descriptive and inferential words as such, is also novel, and was, until the present-system was formulated, largely disregarded, which again led to identifications and false evaluations.                                                    (40)
Investigations show, that in all known primitive peoples and in the 'mentally' ill, we find literal identification of different orders of abstractions, which accounts for these semantic states. Even their 'perceptions' are different from those of the so-called 'normal', 'civilized' man, because higher order abstractions are projected and identified with lower order abstractions. They identify or ascribe one value to essentially many-valued different orders of