ART PRINCIPLES IN PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY
likeness are too nearly nature imitation. They are only the raw material to be used in the process of pic ture-making, but they are in no sense the completed picture. We must arrive at considerable maturity in art before we are able to grasp the significance that underlies this statement, yet it is possible to gain in sight into that which is essential, even at the outset.
There is also a similarity between the work assigned to the art pupil and the methods employed by the pho tographer. In the class-room a model is usually posed against an indifferent background and the student centres his energies upon rendering this model with out making any special use of the resources to be found in the background. This accounts for the wearisome study-head displays at our annual academic exhibitions and is equally responsible for the immaturity of art students when they have finished their courses of study. The photographer's efforts at pictorial work fail for the same reasons, although his methods are different. He too centres all his interest upon the face and figure. His backgrounds are usually bought "ready-made" and have no meaning, fitness, or relation to the sitter. In Fig. 1 we have an example and from an art point of view it is hopeless photography. What we condemn in it is the belief of the photographer that he has pro duced a portrait when the focus upon the woman is
right, and that she will be made picturesque by the