through the horizontal centre, thus giving us two sur faces of equal spacing instead of one, and thereby violating the law that demands of a picture that it should always impress us as a whole, should retain its entirety, its "oneness." Placing the second line in the hope of realizing this "oneness" by adding a ver tical, we aggravate the trouble by making four pic ture surfaces, - Fig. 54. To illustrate by means of a landscape, if we were to imagine the central line of Fig. 53 the horizon, the upper part sky, the lower section the ocean, we would in its present state see neither sky nor water. If, however, we were to drop the line we should see the sky and be conscious of the ocean,-Fig. 55; or if we were to make the line higher we would see the water and feel the presence of the sky,-Fig. 56. In Figs. 55 and 56 we create by the use of the line not two pictures but one whole impression. We have accomplished this through irregularity of di visions.
The laws are the same when we make use of the figure. Its forms, each bounded and defined by lines that produce a pleasant variety, offer limitless opportunities for beautiful plac-