104, but to convey the impression that the object is perfectly secured, it should also be attached above or on the side as in Fig. 105, where the centre is made to stay in the frame firmly. In all of the masterly vig netted portraits painted by Franz von Lenbach, the lines of the figure reach out toward the frame, they sus tain the figure. The direct downward lines found in photo-vignettes are not seen in his work.
Figure 106 is also deficient in stability. The figure is not held in the frame nor made to rest upon the surface. We have the feeling that the woman is swaying in the effort to balance herself upon the lower edge, as sug gested in Figures 107 and 108. Useless space on either side adds to the instability. By cutting off this un necessary width we receive a greater sense of firmness, as we should feel safer in looking from an upper window. if we knew it was narrow enough to enable us quickly to make use of the jambs in case we began to fall. Too much empty space would be a source of discomfort to us; the same is true of the picture.
In this sense Fig. 50 is without stability. The draw ing 98 shows how the background lines in the original painting 51 attach themselves to the figure and the frame at many points, and prove their value in secur ing the quality under discussion.
Applying this principle to our photographs, we readily perceive that the figure in 65 suffers from too