PROFESSIONAL photographers may be dis-couraged when confronted with the necessity of creating backgrounds on the negative instead of buy ing them as hitherto in the form of screens to be placed behind the sitter. There is no occasion for alarm, however. The principles of art as compiled in a text book may seem formidable, but the usual problems of the studio are not often complex and after a little prac tice it is therefore easy in photographic portrait work to make the simple changes that give the greater satis faction.
The average person rejects the scenic background; practically all people of good taste decline to have themselves pictured with too great realism. A small photo-likeness receives preference over a larger one, because in the smaller work the physical presence is less obtrusive and the picture as a whole is capable of more technical refinement. Members of the profession have tried to lessen the people's grievance by trimming the prints only to find a second evil confronting them, - the figure crowded and unduly cramped. The plain