centrally on an object and grading the tones from the highest light softly to the edges.
Side lighting gives us the highest light on one side, a soft graded tone extending to the near frame edge, and an ever increasing depth of tone toward the other border, modified on the contour by a reflex light.
Marginal lighting throws its high light on the edge, and next to this is the strongest dark, from which a diminuendo of tone reaches to the other side.
When a plaster cast is placed under the light cor responding to the foregoing examples, we have the effective modelling shown in Figs. 131, 132, 133.
The frontal lighting of Fig. 131 is always a tempta tion to great portrait painters, inviting a subtle technique in the rendering of the hardly seen yet thoroughly felt gradations that it presents.
Photographers, in essaying the same problem, usually tend to flatness or thinness of effect. When well done, every part of the head will have gradation of tone; the highest light will be where the light strikes the nearest plane.
This high light is most effective on the breadth of the forehead with its slowly curving surface. It will differ from the light on the nose, where the bone and cartilage reflect it sharp and keen.
In Fig. 132 the lighting principle is the same as in Fig. 127. Photographers will profit by repeatedly