Photographers are given to these errors, especially in their half-tones where repetition is frequent.
One other consideration is of importance in model ling. The outline of the head in Fig. 134 has the marginal sharpness so destructive to pictorial effect in photography. The mechanical sameness of its strength weakens the shading and destroys the sense of " body."
A wholesome lesson is learned by the analysis of the outline in Fig. 133. We find it continuously chang ing from the soft to the firm, from the sharp back to the soft, the delicate, the interrupted. This kind of a line models form quite as much as does gradation in tone.
It can be said of the outline in Fig. 134 that the sensitive forms of the head are bounded by it but not described.
Applying the lesson to an example, we discover that the flat background in Fig. 50 flattens the lighting in the face and lessens the "body" sense of all the forms, while the background in Fig. 51, having depth, adds to the lighting obtained on the figure.
The same is true of the photo-prints, when we set side by side the plain and the pictorially developed pictures. Photographers often obtain effects in light ing that are not acceptable to their patrons, as for instance Fig. 135. Here the flesh tones have lost their luminous quality and seem spotty. The problem pre-