The Humanity Of Words - online book

A Primer Of Semantics

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74                    THE HUMANITY OF WORDS
course, that we must have matching complex references and complex referents.
When we have a matching complex reference and complex referent, the reference is both true and logical.15
Ogden and Richards describe three ways in which the elements of psychological and physical contexts may be related to each other; three ways, in other words, in which the elements may be linked together:
(1)  Spatial relations
(2)  Temporal relations
(3)  Causal relations
(1)  The simple references to the house are linked together in space. The parts of the referent are linked together in space. If the psychological linkage (as indicated in the reference) matches the physical linkage (the referent), the statement is both true and logical.
(2)  Sometimes the elements of a complex reference are linked together in time. When we say, for instance, First I went to New York; then I went to Chicago; and, finally, I went to Los Angeles, we have a series of simple references that are linked together in time. If the time sequence of the simple references matches the time sequence of the actual trip (the referent), then the complex reference is both true and logical. To say this another way, if the psychological linkage matches the physical linkage then the reference is both true and logical.
15 Ogden and Richards are reluctant to use the terms "true" and "logical" in connection with a simple reference. The simple reference has no context. Remember the word "chair"? Unless we have a context, we do not know whether the reference is true or false, logical or not logical.