76 THE HUMANITY OF WORDS
Spatial, temporal, and causal linkages are the ones most frequently used, according to these authors. Ogden and Richards refer to such linkages when they say that if the reference "hangs together" in the way the referent "hangs together" the reference is true and the logic is faultless.
This virtually unnoticed, and not always understood, aspect of the science of symbolism is important because it is the first major step toward present-day semantic theory. About twenty years ago, when observations into the communication process at University College first began, one of the preliminary research tasks was to study and evaluate publications on the subject. Very nearly all of them recommended the use of the outline as the basis for purposive communication. Examination into the formulas recommended indicated that the outlines had no cohesive qualities. There was nothing that bound the parts together. In our practical work, it soon became apparent that one very important aspect of the outline was the connections the "uniting relations"that held the parts of the idea together and yet permitted movement toward the completion of the whole idea. Just so, it was found to be necessary to match these verbal connections with congruent connections in the world of people and things. The linkages of Ogden and Richards do precisely that.
Because this important point is overlooked, it is stressed here as the background for the making of verbal patterns as explicated in Part Five.
Here are the essential points to be remembered, all of which are based on Ogden's and Richards' "triangle" of meaning: