OGDEN AND RICHARDS 77
The key terms of Ogden and Richards are symbol, reference, and referent.
The term "symbol" is restricted to words that refer (through references) to referents. All other words are "emotive" terms.
Symbols are impersonal and subject to verification. Symbolic language is, therefore, the language of fact. Symbolic language is, therefore, the appropriate language of the report.
We have found that grammar can help in the making of symbolic statements:
Use simple declarative sentences.
Omit adjectives and adverbs.
Be careful not to use nouns that appraise.
Be careful not to use verbs that appraise.
The term "reference" is preferred to the term "thought" because Ogden and Richards emphasize reference to some-thing(s).
When the verbal reference refers to an actual referent, the statement is true.
When a complex reference hangs together in the way the actual complex referent hangs together, the complex reference is true and the logic is faultless.
21. The contribution of Ogden and Richards
The "triangle" of meaning is restricted to the language of fact. Referential language, to use the current expression1958, is the firm base upon which Charles Morris develops the other uses of language.
The "uniting relations" of Ogden and Richards give us, also, the basis for the making of verbal patterns. Without verbal patterns, we should be unable to present our ideas and ideals. Without verbal patterns, we should be unable