198 THE HUMANITY OF WORDS
of such investigative procedures, Richards suggests "that among new sciences that may emerge there might be the theory of analogies, systematically developed." (page 46)
The analogical sectional pattern makes it possible for us to see differences in similar things, etc.; similarities in different things, etc.
The analogical sectional pattern makes it possible for us to advance knowledge by an extension of similarities already established.
F. Cause to effect pattern In the early days of my work at the University, observation of the actual use of signs was the method used by which we approached communication theory. We did a lot of talking, and we did a lot of listening. Much of the talk was recorded, and everthing that was recorded was analyzed and evaluated by the group as a whole. One thing that we discovered was the inescapable fact that every time a man talked about an actual problem that confronted him in his office, his plant, etc., his words could be summarized as a cause to effect pattern. An analysis of the problem seemed, in each case, to be a search for causes of the trouble (the undesirable effect). If a man penetrated to the causes of the trouble, he felt that he had properly analyzed the problematical situation. If he had not, he felt that this was the first task. Either the industrial organization had to discover the cause(s) of the trouble, or expert engineers had to be engaged for this technical task.
Suppose that a production manager in a canning factory finds that canned foods are showing a high percentage of spoilage. This is an undesirable effect of something that is going on in the factory. But what? Here is a list of all the possible areas in which the cause(s) may be found: