A FIELD THEORY OF COMMUNICATION 199
Manufacture of cans Inspection of cans Filling of cans Heating of cans Cooling of cans
By manipulating each one of these physical operations it is possible to discover that the trouble lies in the making of the cans, that there is a defect in the sealing of the cans which permits the intrusion of bacteria. The actual point of defection is determined. In discussing his problem, this is the verbal pattern which the production manager set up:
Working-title: Defection in the manufacture of cans causes spoilage of canned foods (undesirable effect)
1 Defection in the manufacture of cans
Spoilage of canned foods
We use the term cause to effect pattern to describe a relationship that is established by the controlled manipulation of all possible relevant factors. This is the area of inquiry into physical subject matter. The statement of the cause to eflFect relationship is a working-title that is made up of designators that denote. This gives the relationship the status of fact.
But controlled manipulation of all revelant factors is not always possible. This is the case when the subject matter is not physical but social. If, for example, we are dealing with juvenile delinquency or with poor morale in a plant, we can state the problem only as an imputed cause