200 THE HUMANITY OF WORDS
to effect relationship. The investigator can say only In my opinion, these are the causes of this undesirable effect. In such cases we do the best we can, through observation and statistical methods, to determine causes.
The cause to effect pattern describes a relationship that is established by controlled manipulation of physical subject matter. Since the statement of the relationship is signified by designators that denote, the pattern has the status of fact.
The imputed cause to effect relationship refers to social subject matter. Since the relevant factors are not subject to controlled manipulation, the relationship cannot be signified by designators that denote. The pattern has, therefore, the status of opinion.
Morris gives us the semantic apparatus by which to distinguish between fact and opinion.
The men were pleasedand surprisedto know that they were making orderly cause to effect patterns in their discussions of problems. But, they argued Every problem must be analyzed. We didn't know we were making cause to effect patterns and yet we made them! Why do we need to know we made them? And what good does it do to make them on the conscious level when we do so well without an awareness of the procedure?
This argument never fails to come up with every new group. The answer is this: If we know we are making a causal pattern, we can set it up in its bare essentials and look at itanalytically and critically. Are these all the possible areas in which causes may be found? Is the area under investigation physical or socialor both? In the verbal pattern which signs are designators? And do they or do they not denote? Where do we have fact? Where do we have opinion? These are the questions that must be