A FIELD THEORY OF COMMUNICATION 201
answered before the communicator can present his analysis of the problem to others. When his words state facts that are referable to evidence, he is on firm ground. When his words state opinions as based on all available relevant facts, his statements are less positive, his attitude is receptive of other opinions, and his suggestions concerning solution are tentative and open-end.
G. Means to end pattern
A means to end pattern is the predetermined plan that signifies operations toward an objective. The communicator wants something that does not yet exist. He wants, in some way, to change the status quo. He constructs a verbal pattern of a hoped-for actual pattern. The means to end pattern looks, therefore, to the future.
If it is true, as psychologists and philosophers alike tell us, that all inquiry begins with a problem at hand, it is also true that any plan that looks to the future must begin with an understanding of what is. To say this in other words: the analysis of the problem is the first step toward the solution of the problem. And the analysis of a problematical situation takes the form of a cause to effect pattern or an imputed cause to effect pattern, as described above.
Suppose that the structured situation-as-a-whole which the communicator desires to change may be designated as a cause to effect relationship that denotes. His movement toward a more desirable situation-as-a-whole is, in such a case, prescribed. He has only one choice. He must remove the cause that produces the undesirable effect. When, for example, the fact is established that defective cans cause spoilage, there is only one course by which to