2,02, THE HUMANITY OF WORDS
achieve the desired end. The means to end pattern must take this form:
Working-title: Control of can manufacture is the means by which to reach the desired end (elimination of spoilage)
1. Means (Control of can manufacture)
a) Making | b) Inspecting
2. End (Elimination of spoilage)
Here we move from what is to what will be. Here we move from an undesirable situation-as-a-whole that is designated as a cause to effect pattern to a desirable situation-as-a-whole through a program that is designated as a means to end pattern which, again, will denote. The program is clear; there is little or no freedom of choice as to solution; the movement from one structured situation-as-a-whole to another is virtually prescribed. As Warren Weaver points out in The Mathematical Theory of Communication (1949), when a situation is highly organized, it is not characterized by a high degree of randomness. This suggests here that the choice of means by which to reach a desired goal is restricted.
But an imputed cause to effect relationship deals with subject matter that is at least in part social. When, therefore, we move from an imputed cause to effect relationship to a means to end hypothesis, we are in the area of opinion. The elements are not controllable; the elements cannot be manipulated experimentally. When we deal with social subject matter, the procedure with respect to change is not definitely prescribed. To put this into the language of communication engineers, the situation-as-a-whole is char-